Stone atlas (types of natural stone)

 

STONE ATLAS

R.P.J. van Hees, T.G. Nijland, W.J. Quist, S. Naldini, B. Lubelli

 

The Stone Atlas is part of the reader for the lectures of Prof. Rob van Hees on Building Conservation in the Master of Heritage & Tecvhnology at the Faculty of Architecture. The aim of the atlas is twofold:
- being a help in recognizing the type of natural stone, used in mainly historical (Dutch) buildings;
- providing (future) architects with background information on material properties, as a basis for the choice of compatible repair materials.

INTRODUCTION


In this Stone Atlas, the most important stone types found in Dutch monuments and historic buildings are introduced. Apart from megalithic monuments, the use of building stone in the Netherlands started during the Roman empire: The use of mainly volcanic tuff stone, that was named after the Romans, Römer tuff, but also some other stones (like the Doornik limestone, used for the Nehallenia altars). As building stone is quite rare in the ‘muddy delta’, most of the stone was imported from the Eifel region in Germany. After the decline of the Roman Empire, the use of natural stone in the Netherlands was very limited for centuries. Around the 10th century, the import of stone reemerged. First tuff stone from Germany, later white Belgian stone, especially the Balegem or Lede stone (sandy limestone) and still later sandstone from Bad Bentheim are among the most used stone types in mainly via the rivers (Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Overijsselse Vecht and even the sea). Only a few types of local building stone are available: the Maastricht (locally known as ‘mergel’) and Kunrade limestone, Nivelstein sandstone and Carboniferous sandstone (kolenzandsteen) all from the south, with some bog iron ore (ijzeroer) from North Limburg to Overijssel. Enhanced transportation (trains) made the import of stone over larger distances possible. From the late 19th century, other rock types appear, both for new buildings (Jonge Bouwkunst) and for restorations. The former include many types of granite and other igneous rocks. The latter include many French limestones (Euville, Savonnières, etc.). Geological classification In geological terms, stone (or better rock) can be classified in three main groups: - Sedimentary rock; sedimentary rocks are formed by deposition of material derived from erosion of pre-existing rocks, i.e. so-called clastic sediments (sandstone, claystone, etc.), organically formed material, such as fossils (e.g. limestone), or chemical precipitates (e.g. evaporites, some limestones, bog iron ore), followed by compaction and cementation during diagenesis. Sedimentary rocks form at or near the surface of the earth.

Table 1 Classification of rocks

Sedimentary rock
(sedimentgesteenten)

Sandstone

 
Conglomerate  
Limestone Oolitic limestone
Crinoid limestone
Chemical sediments Bog iron ore (ijzeroer)
Alabaster
Igneous rock: plutonic rock
(stollingsgesteenten: dieptegesteenten)
Granite  
Thrachyte  
Igneous rock: eruptive rock
(stollingsgesteenten: uitvloeiïngsgesteenten)

Basalt  
Tuff stone  
Metamorphic rock
(metamorfe of omzettingsgesteenten)
Marble  
Slate  
 

- Igneous rock; igneous rocks are formed from molten magma and are divided into two main categories: plutonic rock and eruptive or volcanic rock. Plutonic rocks form when magma cools and crystallizes slowly within the Earth’s crust or mantle (e.g. granite); eruptive rocks result from magma reaching the surface either as lava (e.g. basalt) or as ejected ashes or fragments (e.g. tuff).
- Metamorphic rock; metamorphic rocks are formed by subjecting pre-existing rocks to elevated temperature and pressure conditions (due to burial, intrusion of a magma, etc.), causing original minerals to be replaced by other minerals that are thermodynamically stable under ambient temperature and pressure conditions.
Table 1 gives a more detailed classification scheme.
The classification of table 1 is used in the Stone atlas that follows.

Material properties
For the use of natural stone as a building material and certainly for understanding stone decay, apart from the geological background, physical properties are important. Therefore, not only mineralogical composition but especially coherence /contact between minerals, porosity and pore structure (pore size distribution) have to be taken into account. Porosity and pore size distribution are essential for their resistance to all decay mechanisms in which the transport of water is involved. Mineralogical composition We will just indicate here in very general terms a few
aspects:
- Gypsum and calcite (lime stone) are less resistant to chemical weathering than for example quartz (sandstone)
- For resistance to mechanical weathering, the mineralogical composition is important (although the coherence between grains is important as well).
Here the hardness according to Mohs (table 2) can be used as an indication.

Table 2 Mohs hardness classification


Hardness Class (Mohs)

1 Talc
2 Gypsum
3 Calcite
7 Quartz
10 Diamond
   

Talc and gypsum can be scratched with a finger nail, calcite can be scratched with a brass object; quartz is able to scratch steel and diamond can not be scratched.
Contact between minerals
The contact between minerals is important for the coherence and the mechanical strength of the material. Fig. 1 shows the contact for two different types of sandstone: Prague sandstone and Bentheim sandstone.

Porosity
The role of porosity is important in terms of moisture transport, mechanical properties, durability and compatibility. Total porosity is defined as the fraction of the total volume that is not occupied by solid. The porosity is further subdivided in open and closed porosity. Open porosity consists of pores which are interconnected, while closed porosity consists of pores which are not connected to each other. Porosity is further described by pore size distribution. This is the fraction of the total pore volume in which the pores lie within a stated size range. Knowing the total porosity and the pore size distribution is crucial for theunderstanding of moisture transport in a stone (masonry). Depending on their size, pores give a different contribution to the moisture transport. In sorption pores, i.e. smaller than 0.1 μm, water is tightly bound to the pore surface, therefore these pores do not contribute to moisture transport. In capillary pores, having sizes between 0.1 and 100 μm, water moves by differences in capillary pressure between pores of different size, going from larger to smaller pores. In pores larger than 100 μm and in cracks, external pressures as wind pressure and gravity loads determine the moisture transfer. Fig. 2 shows the ranges of pore sizes involved in the different mechanisms of moisture transport. Several methods are available to measure pore size and pore size distribution. The results obtained with different methods may differ. Open porosity can be measured both by microscopy and intrusion methods; closed porosity can be evaluated only by microscopy. Microscopy (including stereo binocular, optical
and scanning electron microscope) as well as visual assessment are direct methods for porosity assessment; mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), as well as immersion, nitrogen adsorption and gas pychnometry, are indirect methods since the presence or size of pores is not determined by direct observation, but inferred by measurements. The pore size distribution data reported in this work have been obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry. This technique consists of enclosing the sample

 
Fig.2 Size ranges of relevance for different transport phenomena
[1]

 

Fig. 1 SEM picture of Prague sandstone (upper) and Bentheim
sandstone (lower) showing a clear difference in contact between
sandgrains; the Bentheim stone is much more compact and has a
higher weathering resistance.

 

 

Tuff 69 (Weibern A)
 Bentheim sandstone
Fig. 3 Pore size distribution of Weiberner tuff, measured with mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) (upper); PFM micrograph of thin section of the same type of stone (lower, 25x, pp)
Fig. 4 Pore size distribution of Bentheim sandstone, measured with
mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) (upper); PFM micrograph of thin
section of the same stone type (lower, 25x, pp)

Table 3 gives for a few stone types the porosity and density. It is clear that a high porosity, generally goes together with a low density and vice versa. More information about physical properties of rocks can be found in annex 3. As an example, in fig. 3 and 4 the pore size distributions of two different types of stone (Weiberner tuff stone and Bentheim sandstone) are shown and we will shortly discuss the consequences. For a better understanding a thin section picture is added for both stone types. Tuff has its main porosity between 0.1 and 2 μm, but also very fine pores around 0.01 μm are present. Bentheim sandstone has its porosity mainly around 30 μm. The different pore sizes of the two types of stone lead to a completely different physical behavior and to a different resistance to weathering: the fine pores in the tuff stone lead to a relatively high water retention (and slow drying after rainy periods), whereas the sandstone will quickly dry. This different drying behavior makes the tuff more sensitive to frost damage than the sandstone.


In annex 1 for a number of stone types the pore size distribution obtained by MIP is given. Annex 2 shows more PFM icrographs of thin sections.

 

Table 3 Porosity and density of stone (indicative values)

  Total
porosity
(% V/V)
Apparent
density
(Kg/m3 )
Maastricht limestone up to 50 1300
Tuff stone 30 - 55 1100-1800
Bentheim sandstone 20 - 30 2100
Gobertange 10 2400
Petit granit 3 2700
Slate <3 2700
Marble <1 2700
 

Index

Bentheim sandstone
Obernkirchen sandstone
Red sandstone
Carboniferous sandstone
Udelfangen sandstone
Rakowicze sandstone
Nivelstein sandstone
Gobertange
Lede stone
Baumbergen stone
Petit granit
Namur limestone
Doornik limestone
Maastricht limstone
Kunrade limestone
Muschelkalk
Euville limestone
Savonnière limestone
Morley limestone

 

Portland limestone
Öland limestone
Red Belgian marble
Black Belgian marble
Travertine
Bog iron ore
Alabaster
Conglomerate
Granite
Labradorite
Drachenfels trachyte
Weidenhanh trachyte
Mendiger basalt
Londorfer basalt
Volvic basalt
Römer tuff
Weiberner tuff
Ettringer tuff
Slate
Carrara marble
Alta quarzite

Literature

Bentheim sandstone

Sedimentary rocks
Sandstone

Dutch name: Bentheimer zandsteen
Alternative names: -

Bentheim sandstone is a well-sorted, medium-grained (0.1- 0.2 mm) marine sandstone deposited in the Lower Saxonian basin during the Valanginien ( Lower Cretateous ), occuring at or near the surface in the Dutch – German border region near Bad Bentheim. This sandstone consists of > 90 % quartz, with accessory feldspars, heavy minerals (tourmaline, zircon, rutile) and Fe-(hydr)oxides, and is, at the localities where it has been quarried as a building stone, almost devoid of clay minerals and carbonates (Füchtbauer 1955, Kemper 1976, Becker 1987).

In the Netherlands, Bentheim sandstone has been used as a building stone in the Twenthe region from the 12th century onwards, and outside that region from 1450 onwards. In 1450, it was applied on in the cathedral of Utrecht in 1450; afterwards, its use spread rapidly, even in the west of the country. The requirement of toll on the shipping routes used for Rhenish tuff used in older monuments greatly enhanced the use of Bentheim sandstone, which could be imported along toll-free routes (Slinger et al. 1980). Monuments built (in part) with Bentheim sandstone, beside the cathedral of Utrecht, are the tower of the New Church (Nieuwe Kerk) in Delft (1494-1495), St. John’s cathedral, ‘s Hertogenbosch, the former town hall, presently Royal Palace (from 1648 onwards), and the house of the brothers Tripp, presently seat of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Science (1660-162), in Amsterdam.

Source: Nijland et al, 2004

Interesting websites: www.geodienst.de; www.sandsteinmuseumbadbentheim.de

   
Bentheim castle, Bad Bendheim (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2005) Dom church, Utrecht (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2006)
   
Grote kerk, Enschede (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2007)  

Obernkirchen sandstone

Sedimentary rocks
Sandstone

Dutch name: Obernkrichener zandsteen
Alternative names: Bückeberger, Bremer, Weser

Obernkirchen sandstone was deposited in the Lower Saxionan basin, but is slightly younger (Wealden) than Bentheim (see Bentheim) sandstone. It has been and still is quarried at the Bückeberg, west of Hannover . It is a light grey to yellowish fine grained, moderately to well-sorted sandstone, composed of quartz and rock fragments up to 0.25 mm, with minor amounts of mica, heavy minerals and Fe-(hydr)oxides and rare feldspars (Chitsazian 1985). Obernkirchen sandstone contains about 15 % ofcement, mainly quartz and kaolinite / illite.

In the Netherlands , Obernkirchen sandstone was only scarcely used during the period of Gothic architecture, notably in the Martinitower in Groningen (1469). During the 17th century Renaissance period, it became more widely used (Slinger et al. 1980). Monuments built with the Obernkirchener sandstone include the former town hall, presently Royal Palace in Amsterdam (from 1648 onwards), the town halls of Leiden (1596-1597) and Delft (1618-1620), and the Peace Palace in The Hague (1909-1913).

Source: Nijland et al, 2004

 
Front facade, city hall, Delft (Photo: Wido Quist, 2001) Corner Drift and Nobelstraat, Utrecht (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2005)

 
Front facade, city hall, Delft (Photo: Wido Quist, 2007)  

Red sandstone

Sedimentary rocks
Sandstone

Dutch name: Rode zandsteen
Alternative names: Red Weser, Bremer sandstone

This sandstone, from the geological era Buntsandstein, can be found in a large part of Germany, amongst other places in the areas North Bayern, Baden, Württemberg, Palatern and Eifel, as well as in part of Hessen, Ostfalen and South Lower Saxony. The stones from the Upper and Lower Buntsandstein are red; the stones formed in the Middle Buntsandstein can also be yellow or grey. In contrast to many sedimentary rocks, the sandstone from the Buntsandstein has not been formed in the sea, but on the land. This explains the red colour. Sedimentation on the land and exposition to the air caused oxidation of the iron present. Different kinds of Buntsandstein have the red colour in common. The regions crossed by the rivers Weser and Main are traditionally considered to be the provenance of red sandstone used in the Netherlands . Buntsandstein from the Weser region is a fine-grained stone, often apparently very dense, containing ca. 76-79% clastic products (mainly quarz en rock fragments, together with feldspar and mica), 17-18% clay and iron-rich binder, and 3-7% visible pores. Total porosity may vary considerably, from about 7% in the stone of Karlshafen to ca. 18% in the stone of Arholzen. Typical of Bontzandsteen is the presence of sedimentary structures, especially in coarse grained varieties, such as cross bedding due to sedimentation in streaming water. In the area of the river Main , around the little village Miltenberg, red Buntsandstein is also quarried. Quarrying dates back to the early Middle Ages or before. In the XI and XII centuries, three workplaces were operating, where sarcophagi in red Buntsandstein were made. Fine-grained, homogenous, red to brown-red and red-violet sandstones, such as Wüstenzeller sandstone (form the place having the same name in Unterfranken), are still quarried. These sandstones contain ca. 80% clastics (mainly quartz, together with rock fragments, muscovite and feldspar), 9% clay- and iron-rich binder and 11% visible pores.

Source: Nijland et al, 2007

   
Dom church, Utrecht (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2005) Old Church, Delft (Photo: Wido Quist, 2006)
   
Dom church, Utrecht (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006)  

Carboniferous sandstone

Sedimentary rocks
Sandstone

Dutch name: Kolenzandsteen
Alternative names: -

The use of Upper Carboniferous sandstone is, generally restricted to the southernmost part of the province of Limburg . The Romans used it outside that area (e.g. in the Castellum in Utrecht ). Given the small outcrops and small known quarries, most of the sandstone used was certainly imported from Belgium or Germany .

Beside the very small Kamp quarry, material was obtained from the slightly larger Cottessen (Kwartsiet-) quarry. Material fromthis quarry is variable, ranging from quartzitic sandstone with minor opagues at the quartz grain boundaries, to more shale like rock types, with medium grained quartz in a fine grained matrix, containing white micas and abundant organic matter, showing a preferred orientation.

Source: Nijland et al, 2007

   
West façade, Church of Our Lady, Maastricht (Photo: Timo Nijland,
2004)
Apse, Church of Our Lady, Maastricht (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2004)
   
Apse, Church of Our Lady, Maastricht (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2004)  

Udelfangen sandstone

Sedimentary rocks
Sandstone

Dutch name: Udelfanger zandsteen
Alternative names: -

Udelfangen sandstone can be found at the base of the Lower Muschelkalk series in the west Eifel, with outcrops near the village of Udelfangen , west of Trier .

The first use of the Udelfangen sandstone dates back to the medieval epoch (Liebfrauenkirche, Trier , 13th century). In the village Udelfangen itself the oldest examples are tombstones in the local churchyard, which dates from the 18th century. Udelfanger sandstone has been used as a restoration stone instead of the calcareous sandstones from the Eocene in Belgium and the volcanic tuffs from the east Eifel (Slinger et al. 1980, Dubelaar 1984).

According to Grimm (1990), Udelfangen sandstone is dominated by quartz (65%) and lithic fragments (22%) with small amounts of feldspar (about 8%) and mica (2%). Most of the mica is muscovite, but biotite and chlorite may be present, too.

The sandstone is cemented by carbonate (dolomite), which usually makes up about 3-5% of the mineral content. The colour of the stones varies from yellowish-grey to greenish-grey. A characteristic feature of Udelfangen sandstone is the occurrence of very small stains of dark coloured manganese oxide.

Source: Dubelaar 2004

   
West facade, St. Bavo Church, Haarlem (Photo: Timo Nijland,
2004)
West facade, Dom Church, Utrecht (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2005)
   
Remonstrant Church, Rotterdam (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006)  

Rakowicze sandstone

Sedimentary rocks
Sandstone

Dutch name: Rackowicze zandsteen
Alternative names: -

Rakowicze sandstone is a greyish yellow sandstone from the Lwówek Śląski district in Silezia , Poland . It is called Rackwitzer Sandstein in Germany and Silezian or Rachwitz sandstone in the Netherlands . It is a quartz-rich, open sandstone with part of the pores filled by clay minerals, which also occur as thin coatings on detrital quartz grains. Locally, domains with a considerable amount of Fe-(hydr)oxides occur, pointing to an originally sideritic or ankeritic cement.

Rakowicze sandstone has been quarried since the 16th century, and used in many monuments in Poland , Germany and theNetherlands . In the Netherlands, Rakowicze sandstone has been used during the 1910’s – 1930’s, amongst other types of stone, in the former building of the Koninklijke Hollandsche Lloyd at the Oosthandelskade, in Amsterdam, and in the town halls of Rotterdam, Noordwijk and Waalwijk. Recently it has been used as a restoration stone at St. Peter’s Church, Leyden and St. Plechelmus’ Church, Oldenzaal. In Germany , Rakowicze sandstone was used, amongst other types of stones, in the Brandeburger Tor in Berlin .

Source: Dubelaar et al, 2003

   
South corner, City Hall, Rotterdam (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2004) North facade, Pieterskerk, Leiden (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2005)
   
City Hall, Rotterdam (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2004)  

Nivelstein sandstone

Sedimentary rocks
Sandstone

Dutch name: Nivelsteiner zandsteen
Alternative names: Herzogenrath

Nivelstein sandstone is a very pure sandstone, derived from the lithification of extremely pure quartz sands, the so-called silver sands (Duthc: zilverzand). These sands occur around the towns of Heerlen and Brunssum, in the South-eastern part of theprovince of Limburg , as well as in the adjacent part of Germany . Currently, the only operating quarry is on the Dutch-German border, just on the German side.

Nivelstein sandstone was used in Roman times, among other stones, for sarcophagi, for some of the so-called Nehalennia altars recovered from the submerged Colijnsplaat in the province of Zeeland , and as border stone, in Rijswijk , in the western province ofSouth Holland . In Utrecht , it was used on a small scale in the 11th and 12th centuries (e.g. St. Peter’s church, cloister of St. Mary). In Limburg , thisthis sandstone was used to construct religious buildings during the early middle ages, like the abbey of Rolduc. In was used for several restorations as well as new buildings in Limburg in the 1920’s and 1930’s, for example on the Holy Heart of Jezus Church of Koepelkerk in Maastricht .

Nivelstein sandstone has two varieties, a greyish one and a yellowish one. The first has a higher compressive strength and slightly lower porosity and water absorption than the first. Nivelstein sandstone is a durable, frost-resistant stone. Exposed surfaces of Nivelstein sandstone tend to weather black (like most sandstones) and the surface becomes smooth under the influence of rain, thus obtaining an appearance as if it had been sintered.

Source: Nijland et al, 2006, 2007

   
Holy Heart of Jezus Church, Maastricht (Photo: Rob van Hees,
2004)
Ribs of vaults, Ruin castle, Valkenburg (Photo: Timo Nijland,
2008)
   
Cloister of St. Marie, Utrecht (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006)  

Gobertange

Sedimentary rocks
Sandy limestone

Dutch name: Gobertange
Alternative names: Gobertinge

Gobertange stone comes form the Formation of Brussels. The stone is also called Gobertinge or, together with other stones of the same geological formation  Brusselien limestone. Nowadays, the stones are only extracted in Gobertange (near Geldenaken); in the past, limestone was extracted from the same formation at different places, partly underground, around Brussels (Nijs 1990, Dopéré 2000). Like the Lede stone (see below), the stone is derived from lithified horizons in otherwise unconsolidated sands, but the banks are much thinner, generally around max. 20 cm (Nijs 1990). Gobertange stone is a sandy limestone, with thin, glauconite-bearing sandy layers, carbonate veins and bioturbations. The carbonate content ranges from 75 to 90%, with 10 to 20% quartz and <5% glauconite (Nijs 1990). The stone has a density ranging from 2.32 to 2.48g cm-3, with a porosity ranging from 6.7 to 12.9 %, and compressive strength ranging from 645 to 946 kg cm-2 (WTCB 1970).

This stone is formed from thin, calcareous, very finelygrained strata, which is very light and cemented, alternating with calcareous sandstone, coarser grained and slightly greyish. Gobertange stone therefore has its own highly characteristic structure. It is to be noted that this stone is used for making smaller items: the height of the layers is about fifteen centimetres, and the finished products have a maximum thickness of 10 to 12 centimetres after the soft parts of the stone have been removed.

Pale beige in colour when freshly cut, the stone may be speckled with traces of green glauconite, which become reddish when oxidized. Over time, it acquires a greyish beige tone. This stone is easily cut and moulded.

Source: Van Hees, et al, 2005

   
St. John’s Church, Gouda (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006) St. Bavo Cathedral, Haarlem (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2004)
   
Hoogland Church, Leiden (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2005)  

Lede stone

Sedimentary rocks
Sandy limestone or calcarenite

Dutch name: Ledesteen
Alternative names: Balegemse steen, Lediaanse steen, Dendersteen, Grès Lédien

Lede stone is a glauconite-bearing sandy limestone or calcarenite with  40 – 60 % carbonate. It has been quarried at various places in the area between Leuven and Gand (Nijs 1985, 1990, Fobe 1990). Lede stone occurs as three calcite-cemented 50 to 60 cm thick banks in non-lithified sands (Nijs 1990, Fobe 1990). It contains a considerable amount of fossils, in particular nummulites (one celled organisms with a lime shell), that are a distinguishing feature of this stone. In layers rich in fossils, the carbonate content is higher than average (up to 80%). Besides quartz and calcite, 3 to 4 % glauconite, a green clay mineral, is present (Fobe 1990). Due to oxidation of the glauconite, the pale, light grey colour of the stone alters, and the stone gets its typical yellow beige to orange patina. The stone has a density of 2,31 to 2,51 g cm-3, porosity of 5,7 to 13,2 %, compressive strength 557 to 1225 kg cm-2 and is frost resistant (WTCB 1970).

Source: Van Hees, et al, 2005

   
Church of St. Michael, Leuven (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2004) West facade, Church of Our Lady, Breda (Photo: Rob van Hees,
2005)
   
St. Jean & St. Etienne des Minimes, Brussels (Photo: Timo Nijland,
2004)
 

Baumbergen stone

Sedimentary rocks
Sandy limestone or calcarenite

Dutch name: Baumberger
Alternative names: Münstersteen

Baumbergen is a crême to yellowish, fine grained, sandy limestone, from a ridge called Baumberge, west of Münster , Germany . For this reason, it is often called Münstersteen in medieval documents. Locally, the stone has been used since about 970. In theNetherlands , the tower of the Grote Kerk in Enschede is an early example of its use, dating back to c. 1200. The stone was more widely used in the 15th and 16th centuries. The relatively soft rock was often used for sculptured work, and is often confused with the Avesne stone from northern France , used for the same purpose.

The Baumberger was deposited in a marine environment during the Late Cretaceous. The stone shows considerable horizontal and lateral variation in grain size. Beside the quartz grains and fossils cemented by lime, this stone contains some clay minerals, including glauconite. Sanding, delamination and layering, as well as the formation of gypsum crusts, are common weathering forms.

Source: Nijland et al, 2007

Interesting website:
http://www.sandsteinmuseum.havixbeck.de

   
Tower Grote Kerk, Enschede (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2007). Upper
part is Bentheim sandstone.
Eusebius Church, Arnhem (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2005)
   
Eusebius Church, Arnhem (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2005)  

Petit granit

Sedimentary rocks
Limestone

Dutch name: (Belgisch) Hardsteen
Alternative names: Arduin


Petit granit or 'hardsteen' is a dense, bluish limestone, traditionally obtained in Belgium (though currently, alternative stones are sold as hardsteen, coming from Ireland , China and Vietnam ). Like the Namur limestone, it was deposited in the Viséen (Early Carboniferous). It is a very dense and very pure (> 95 % Ca-carbonate), crinoid limestone, i.e. mainly composed by crinoid re­mains, with additional shell and coral fossils. Typical for some layers are stylolithes, and the occurrence of diaclases (joints; Dutch ‘steken’). The stone gains prominence from the 17th century onwards, pushing the Namur limestone out of the market. It has been used eversince, with an interesting revival in Jugendstil (Art Nouveau) architecture.

The stone is characterized by abundant fossils, cemented together by micro­crystalline calcite containing very finely dispersed graphite. When the stone is freshly broken, the fossils produce a sparkling effect by reflectionof light on the facets. The crinoids, corals and shells stand out pale against a dark background, which varies from light grey to black, through a range of bluish shades, depending on the finish. The stone becomes lighter with exposure to harsh weather conditions, because the graphite inclusions arewashed out.


Source: Nijland et al, 2007

   
Aorta, Utrecht (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006) City Hall, Schiedam (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2004)
   
Deventer (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2007)  

Namur limestone

Sedimentary rocks
Limestone

Dutch name: Naamse steen (Namense steen)
Alternative names: Maaskalksteen


Though earlier use is known, Namur limestone was typically employed from the end of the 15th to mid 17th century in theNetherlands . It is a fossiliferous limestone from the Belgian Carboniferous (like the Petit granit), deposited in the Viséen (Early Carboniferous). In was quarried at several localities along the Meuse valley. In contrast to petit granit, fossils do not determine the visual appearance of the stone, whereas it lacks the shaly appearance of Doornik limestone. Namur limestone is very pure.Generalizing, Namur limestone comes in two varieties, a stromatolitic one, in which thin alternating layers caused by the presence of algae mats (stromatolites) become evident as a result of weathering, and a packstone, in which debris dominates. Both obtain a silvery grey weathering colour (patina) with time.

Source: Nijland et al, 2007

   

Cloister of St. Paul’s Cathedral, Luik

 

(Photo: Timo Nijland, 2004)

St. Servaas Church, Maastricht (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006)
   
Dom church, Utrecht (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006)  

Doornik limestone

Sedimentary rocks
Limestone

Dutch name: Doornikse steen
Alternative names: Pierre de Tournai, Noir de Tournai, zwarte steen van Doornik

Doornik limestone is quarried around the city of Doornik (Tournai) in Belgium , and was deposited in the geological stage that derives its name from the city of Tournai , the Tournaisien (Early Carboniferous). It is a grey, quartz- and clay-bearing limestone. The carbonate content varies between 75 and 90 %. Crinoid fossils are present in the carbonate fraction, and yellow cubes of pyrite, FeS2, may also occur. The presence of clay minerals, with additional mica in some layers, causes the typical, shale likeweathering. Many of the banks quarried in the past have been found to be not frost resistant.

In the Netherlands , the stone has especially been especially used in the 13th century, in particular in the southwest, where it gave rise to a typical architectural style, the so-called Scheldt Gothic: the shale-like nature of the stone determined, to a considerable extent, the architectural / sculptural shapes. Because of its limited frost resistance, the stone was mostly used for interior works, such as tiles, sarcophagi (such as that of bishop Guy of Avennes in the Cathedral of Utrecht), etc.. However, outdoor use is known, including in civil engineering purposes such as bridges (e.g., Stadhuisbrug, Utrecht).

Source: Slinger et al. 1980, Nijland et al. 2007

   
South facade, Church of Our Lady, Kortrijk (Photo: Timo Nijland,
2007)
Left: Carboniferous limestone, right: Doornik limestone, Dom
Church, Utrecht (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2005)
   
Sarcophage of Guy van Avenes, Dom Church, Utrecht (Photo:
Timo Nijland, 2006)
 

Maastricht limestone

Sedimentary rocks
Limestone

Dutch name: Mergel
Varieties: Sibbe, Zichen, Roosburg, Kanne

Alternative names: Maastrichter steen

‘Mergel’ or Maastricht limestone, derived from the Maastricht facies of Cretaceous Maastricht Formation, represents the most ‘widely’ used native natural stone in the Netherlands . Maastricht limestone is very soft, fine to course grained yellow-white, with CaCO3 contents up to 94-98 wt.%. Different stratigraphic horizons have been quarried in the past. Currently, only one subsurface quarry for building stone is operating.

Maastricht limestone is a durable stone, despite its soft nature. The stone acquires a protective skin (‘calcin’) when exposed to atmospheric influences, due to the dissolution of the carbonate in the pore fluid, and its precipitation at or near the surface. In the past, this was often enhanced artificially.

The stone has been used in the southern most part of the southern province of Limburg and adjacent Belgium . Oldest surviving (parts of) monuments date back to c. 1100 (St. Servaas’ basilica, Maastricht ). Later, it was sparsely used outside its native area (e.g. in the 15th century in the central Dutch town of Utrecht ).

Source: Felder & Bosch 2000, Dreesen et al. 2001, Dusar & Dreesen 2007, Nijland et al, 2006, 2007

   
Spaans Leenhof, Valkenburg (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2007) Former Franciskaner Church, Maastricht (Photo: Rob van Hees,
2004)
   
Grendelpoort, Valkenburg (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2007)  

Kunrade limestone

Sedimentary rocks
Limestone

Dutch name: Kunrader kalksteen
Alternative names: -

Kunrade limestone is one of the two facies of the Cretaceous Maastrichtian formation in the south of the Netherlands . It consists of alternating hard and softer, light grey limestone layers with an average thickness of 20-30 cm. This stone is slightly harder then its counterpart, Maastricht limestone derived from the same geological period. Compared to Maastricht limestone, Kunrade limestone is characterized by more widespread carbonate cementation.

The use ofKunrader limestone is generally limited to the southernmost part of the Dutch province Limburg . It was already used by the Romans also for buildings. Later, it was used for sculptures in the 11th century St. Servaas’ basilica in Maastricht . However, it mainly occurs in younger monuments. Outside its provenance area, it has been used for some utility buildings in Amsterdam in the 1920’s.

Source: Felder & Bosch 2000, Nijland et al, 2006

   
Petrus Canisius Church, Nijmegen (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2007) Trafohuisje, Amsterdam (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2004)
   
St. Servaas Basilica, Maastricht (Photo: Rob van Hees)  

Muschelkalk

Sedimentary rocks
Limestone

Dutch name: Muschelkalk
Varieties: Kirchheimer, Kresheimer, Winterhäuser

Muschelkalk is a limestone with abundant shell fossils, cemented by calcite. This stone was deposited in the geological period with the same name. It is (mostly) derived from several localities in the surroundings of the southern German town of Würzburg . In theNetherlands , this stone was introduced in the late 19th century. It has been used for both new buildings, in particular in the 1920’s and 1930’s, and restoration purposes. Examples of newly erected buildings include the General Post Offices in Utrecht andRotterdam , as well as the Bunge House and P&C building in Amsterdam . A good example of its use for restoration purposes is the cloister of the cathedral of Utrecht (Pandhof van de cathedral), where it was used in 1958-1962. The porosity of the stone may be quite variable, from a few percent in Muschelkalk stone from Kirchheim, to over 10 % in the stone from Krensheim. The stone shows good durability in Dutch climate.

 

Source: Nijland et al. 2007

   
Cloister, Dom Church, Utrecht (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2006) Post office, Utrecht (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2005)
   
Post office, Rotterdam, detail (Photo: Wido Quist, 2006)  

Euville limestone

Sedimentary rocks
Crinoid limestone


Dutch name: Euville kalksteen
Alternative names: -

French limestones havebeen used as replacement stones since the 2nd half of the 19th century. Generalizing, they may be divided into two groups, viz. oolitic limestones and crinoid limestones. Euville limestone is a typical example of the group of crinoid limestones. This light brown to beige limestone, deposited in the Upper Oxfordien (Jura), and is made of cemented crinoid fossils. The stone is quarried in the Dept. Meuse, France. Its first use in the Netherlands was as a re­placement stone in the Ridderzaal,The Hague.

Source: Nijland et al. 2007

   
Apartment building, Leuven (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2004) Pharmacy, Amsterdam (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2003)
   
Leuven (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2005) Delft, former TU library, (8 x enlarged) Euville showing crinoids (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2011)

Savonnières limestone

Sedimentary rocks
Oolitic limestone

Dutch name: Savonnières kalksteen
Alternative names: -

French limestones have been used as replacement stones in the Netherlands since the 2nd half of the 19th century. Generalizing, they may be divided into two groups, viz. oolitic limestones and crinoid limestones. Savonnières limestone is a typical example of the group of oolitic limestones.It is a limestone mainly constituted by cemented ooliths, i.e. small, more or less round calcium carbonate particles, concentrically grown around a detrital core. Beside ooliths, shell fossils commonly occur. Savonnières is a greyish yellow stone, deposited in the Portlandien (Jura). It is quarried in the Dept. Meuse, France.

As said, French limestones, including Savonnières, have been used as replacement stone since the 19th century. They have also been used for new buildings. Examples include the Academiegebouw, Utrecht (1892), and the main railway station of Louvain (Leuven , B). In contrast to the other French limestones, Savonnières was already used in the Medieval times. A single, isolated block, is present in the 10th cen­tury Valkhofkapel, in  Nijmegen.

Source: Nijland et al. 2007

   
Railway station, Leuven (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2005) Stock market, Brussels (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006)
   
Valkhof Chapel, Nijmegen (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2004)

Wilhelmina monument, (8 x enlarged) savonnières showing oolites ans shell fragments (Photo: Rob van Hees 2001)

Morley limestone

Sedimentary rocks
Oolitic limestone

Dutch name: Morley kalksteen
Alternative names: -

Morley limestone is a white to greyish oolithic limestone, quarried up to the 1970’s in the Département Meuse in France. The Morley is an oolithic limestone, with minor bioclasts, and a macroporosity estimated at 20 vol.%. Ooliths and bioclasts are cemented by carbonate mud
partly recrystallized to microspar. The amount of carbonate cement / microspar is about 10 vol.%. The
rock often shows a well developed sedimentary layering. In practice, the rock has shown variable durability in Dutch climate. The rock is not resistant to salt crystallization (NaCl).

In the second part of the 19th century, limestones from northern France have been introduced in the Netherlands, one of them being the Morley. It was used both for new buildings as well as replacement stone. Newly constructed buildings (partly) cladded with Morley include Hotel l’Europe and the city theater (stadschouwburg) in Amsterdam (both 1920’s) and the Verenigingsgebouw at the Karel de Groteplein in Nijmegen (1914). The rock has, however, mostly been used for indoor applications. As replacement stone, it was used on both major churches in the city of Leyden,
viz. the Hooglandse or St. Pancras’ Church and St. Peter’s Church (Pieterskerk) during the 1890’s and first half of the 20th century.

Source: Nijland, T.G. & Hees, R.P.J. van, 2008

   
Hotel l’Europe, Amsterdam (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2004) Hoogland Church, Leiden, removed pinnacle (Photo: Timo Nijland,
2006)

Portland limestone

Sedimentary rocks
Oolitic limestone

Dutch name: Portland steen
Alternative names: -

Limestones from the Isle of Portland have been extracted for use in buildings since Roman times, but became a popular building material in the United Kingdom over the past three hundred and fifty years. Portland limestone has elaborately been used by Sir Christopher Wren in St. Pauls’ cathedral and for numerous other churches, rebuilt in London after the Great Fire in 1666.  In theNetherlands , Portland stone was locally used late 18th century, for example in the town of Schiedam . In the 19th century, it was used for restoration of the plinth of the tower of the cathedral of Utrecht . Its used for restoration purposes was revived in the late 20th century, in St. John’s cathedral, ‘s-Hertogenbosch.

Portland Stone was deposited during the Jurassic period, over 145 million years ago. It is an oolitic limestone, with fragments of shells from oysters, scallops and clams that lived on these shifting lime sands. The appropriate building stones, the so-called Freestone series, are derived from three main beds, i.e. from bottom to top, the Base Bed, the Whit Bed and The Roach. Extensive use of Portland Stone in the UK has shown that the most durable stones come from the Whit Bed. Roach stone can also be very durable but is less suitable for carving, because of the large amount of large fossils. However, its use in Dorsetbreakwaters, dating from the 19th century, shows that it is a durable stone.

Portland Stone originated in the Jurassic period over 145 million years ago, when dissolved carbon dioxide in the shallow tropical seas reacted with the calcium and bicarbonate ions to form thick layers of calcium carbonate (lime). Scattered among these grains (ooliths) were fragments of shells from oysters, scallops and clams that lived on these shifting lime sands.

Source: Dubelaar et al, 2003, Nijland et al. 2007

   
St. John’s Cathedral, ‘s-Hertogenbosch (Photo Wido Quist, 2005) St. John’s Cathedral, ‘s-Hertogenbosch (Photo Wido Quist, 2005)
   
St. Jacobsgasthuis, Schiedam (Photo Wido Quist, 2005)  

Öland limestone

Sedimentary rocks
Limestone

Dutch name:Öland kalksteen
Alternative names: -

Öland limestone comes from the island with the same name, off shore Sweden in the Baltic Sea . In the Netherlands , it has been used as a pavement stone, for example in the Royal Palace , Amsterdam , and as tombstone, for example in the town ofHarderwijk . This stone has mainly been used in the 16th and 17th centuries, though later use is known (the floor of 1930’s general post office in Rotterdam ). In Sweden, stone has also been used for outside cladding.

This limestone varies in colour from red and reddish brown to greenish. It was deposited during Cambro-Silurian geological period. The geological age may be deduced from the typical Orthoceras fossils, which may be up to several dm in length. The stone is still quarried in several quarries on the northern part of the island.

   
Plinth, Drottninggatan 1, Stockholm (Photo: Timo Nijland 2004) Tiles, Nieuwendam 23, Hoorn (Photo: Timo Nijland 2004)
   
Norra Latin centre, Stockholm (Photo: Timo Nijland 2004)  

Red Belgian marble

Sedimentary rocks
Limestone


Dutch name: rode Belgisch marmer

Varieties (amongst others): Rouge royal, rouge Saint-Rémy, rouge griotte

The deposits of red and grey marbles dating from the Upper Frasnian geological era (Upper Devonian, Pal­aeozoic), which are now quarried from the region of Philippeville, in the province of Namur, are ancient coral reefs rich in a variety shells and corals and other fossils. The marble extracted from these deposits display a range of colours, with hues of red, pink and grey. It often showfine white or yellow veining. The abundance of fossils and the variety of shades give this material a decorative appearance, but no uniform or standard use of colours may be obtained if the stone is used on a larger scale. Each variety has its own traditional name, for example,'griotte' (added '') for dark reds,' royal' for bright or light red, 'byzantin' for red marbles in which grey fossils are finely outlined in black, etc. When used outdoors, this marbles lose their polish and acquire a very light patina.


Source: www.pierresetmarbres.be

   
Galleries St. Hubert, Brussels (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006) Epitaph in Old Church, Delft (Photo: Wido Quist, 2006)
   
Building Vaartweg, Hilversum (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2005)  

Black Belgian marble

Sedimentary rocks
Limestone

Dutch name: Zwart Belgisch marmer
Varieties: Marbre noir de Mazy, Noir Belge, Marbre Sainte-Anne, Marbre Grande Antique de Meuse

Black Belgian marbles (marbre noir) comprise a series dense, fine to very fine grained, polishable dark grey to black limestones, i.e. not marbles in a geological sense. They comprise the black marble of Mazy, quarried near Golzinne and of Frasnian age (Devonian), as well as the Carboniferous black marbles of Dinant, Denée, Theux and Basècles. Black Belgian marbles have mainly used for interior use, and got fame all over the world. They have been used, for example, in the Versailles Palace. In the Netherlans, black Belgian marbles have often been used for funeral monuments,
for example those of William of Orange and Hugo Grotius in the New Church, Delft.

In addition to the black Belgian marbles s.sr., veined
black marbles have been widely used for decorative purposes, such as the famous Marbre Grande Antique de Meuse and the Ste. Anne (Marbre Sainte-Anne). The latter, a limestone with abundant corals, stromatopores and spongues. Depending on the pattern, Ste. Anne marbles were distinguished in the types petit, moyen and grand mélange. The Ste. Anne was quarried at several places, amongst them Barbençon and
Solre-Saint-Géry, which quarries also being exploited for export. The Ste. Anne marble too, was used at the Versailles palace, but also exported elsewhere, for example to Russia. The last quarry in Ste. Anne was closed in 1975.

   
Church of St. Peter, Leuven (Photo: Timo Nijland 2004) Monument Hugo de Groot (Grotius), New Church, Delft (Photo: Timo
Nijland 2007)

Travertine

Sedimentary rocks
Limestone

Dutch name: Travertijn
Alternative names: -

Travertine is a light coloured (mostly white or yellowish) rock composed by finely crystalline calcium carbonate; its chemical composition is similar to that of limestone and marble, but it has a very different structure. The stone is formed by chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate from solution in the groundwater of (thermal) springs. Thin accumulations of this chemical sediment results in distinct layers - their thickness depending on the waterflow rate and composition. The result is a distinctly banded rock, in which thin horizons of dust and debris accentuate the layering. This layering, together with easy quarrying, has made banded travertine attractive for both construction and sculpture.

Travertine was extensively used already by the Romans: it was and still is quarried near Tivoli. Both the Bijenkorf building inRotterdam and the US Embassy in The Hague, designed by the American architect Marcel Breuer, are cladded with travertine. Another prominent example is the Dutch National Monument , on Dam square in Amsterdam .

Source: Slinger et al. 1980, Heiken et al. 2005

   
National Monument, Amsterdam (Photo: Timo Nijland 2003) St. Hubertus, Hoge Veluwe (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2002)
   
National Monument, Amsterdam (Photo: Rob van Hees)  

Bog iron ore

Sedimentary rocks
Chemical sediments


Dutch name: IJzeroer
Alternative names: -

Bog iron ore occurs at many places in the Pleistocene part of the Netherlands , especially along many minor rivers east of the riverIJssel . Most deposits are very young, ranging from Boreaal (Holocene) to only a few centuries. Given its occurrence, it is not surprising that the use of this stone is mostly confined to the eastern regions of the Archterhoek and parts of Overijssel, as well as the northern part of the southern province of Limburg , with a more western occurrence in Ermelo.

Bog iron ore is composed by massive iron (hydr)oxides, goethitie/hemathite, with only minor amounts of quartz or clay minerals, distinctly different form Fe-cemented sandstones.

Source: Nijland et al, 2006

   
West facade Reformed Church, Hellendoorn (Photo: Timo Nijland,
2005)
East facade Reformed Church, Hellendoorn (Photo: Timo Nijland,
2005)
   
Lebuinus Church, Deventer (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2005)  

Alabaster

Sedimentary rocks
Other

Dutch name: Albast
Alternative names: -

Albaster is often confused with marble. It is, however, not composed by calcium carbonate, but by gypsum, a calcium sulfate. It occurs as irregular masses and lenses, generally about 0.5 m in size, rarely up to 1 m. The colour of alabaster varies from alum-like, semitransparent white to cream with red and green impurities.  Traditional European sources of alabaster are Nottingham ,England , and Italy . The first is yellowish with red veins, the latter more greenish and more transparent. In the Netherlands , the alabaster used for sculptures come from Nottingham . It has been used for indoor funeral monuments in particular.

Source: Slinger et al, 1980

   
Monument of Engelbert II, Church of Our Lady, Breda (Photo:
Rob van Hees, 2005)
Monument of Elisabeth Morgan daughter of Marnix of St. Aldegonde,
Old Church, Delft (Photo: Wido Quist, 2006)

Conglomerate

Sedimentary rocks
Other

Dutch name: Conglomeraat
Alternative names: -

Conglomerate is the coarse grained counterpart of sandstone. Whereas sandstone is formed by the lithification of sand due to compaction and/or cementation, a conglomerate is formed by the lithification of gravel and boulders: well rounded rocks float in a fine grained matrix. Conglomerates of limestone boulders in a carbonate matrix also occur. This type of stone was not used in classic Dutch monuments, but it has been used in several other parts of Europe, for example in Italy (Castel del Monte – Puglia ) and in several churches and many houses in the Portugese city of Setubal . There its use includes sculptured work. In the Netherlands, this kind of rock has been used in the 1960’s – 1970’s for outside cladding, for example in the Hoog Catharijne shopping mall in Utrecht and the Stadskantoor in Zwolle.

   
Stadskantoor, Zwolle (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2007) Castel del Monte, Puglia, Italy (Photo: Rob van Hees, 2006)
   
Igreja de Santa Maria da Graca, Setubal, Portugal (Photo: Timo
Nijland, 2005)
 

Granite

Igneous rock
Plutonic rock

Dutch name: Graniet
Varieties: Bavarian granite, red granite, megacryst granite, etc.

Granite is an intrusive igneous rock, mainly composed by light coloured minerals (quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar) with either white or dark mica’s (muscovite and biotite, respectively) and occasional ore minerals or hornblende. Grain size may be quite variable from one type to another, from relatively fine grained to so-called megacryst granites with K-feldspar crystals ranging from a few cm to about one dm. Colour too may be quite variable, from white to yellowish, red and reddish brown hues.

In southern Europe ( Portugal , Spain ), granite was already used during the Roman and Romanesque period. In the Netherlands , the stone started to be used form the late 19th century onwards, after new transportation methods had become available. Hence, it is typical for the period of Young Architecture (Jonge Bouwkunst). White and yellowish granites usually came from Bavaria ,Germany (e.g. Epprechtstein), whereas red granites, in that period, usually came from Scandinavia . In the Netherlands , there are only two examples of the use of granite as a building stone before the 19th century. In the case of the Romanesque churches of Odoorn and Emmen, in the northern province of Drenthe, granite was not imported by man but obtained from glacial boulders deposited during the ice age preceding the last one, i.e. the Saalian ice age.

 

Source: Nijland et al. 2006, 2007

   
Amsterdamse Maatschappij voor Levensverzekeringen, Amsterdam
(Photo: Rob van Hees, 2003)
Bijenkorf building, Rotterdam (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006)
   
Deventer, detail (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006)  

Labradorite

Igneous rock
Plutonic rock

Dutch name: Labradoriet
Alternative names: -

Labradorite is an intrusive igneous rock, composed by > 90 % of the feldspar plagioclase. Commonly, it is a coarse grained, dark brownish - green rock, with cm sized crystals, often with a bluish huge. The rock was not used before about 1900, and is typical for the period of Young Architecture (Jonge Bouwkunst), c. 1900 – late 1930’s. In many cases, it was only used for cladding of the plinth, combined with larvikite or white Bavarian granite in window frames etc.

 

Source: Nijland et al. 2007

   
Lijnmarkt, Utrecht (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006) Nachtegaalstraat, Utrecht, (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006)

Drachenfels trachyte

Igneous rock
Plutonic rock

Dutch name: Drachenfels trachiet
Alternative names: Drakenvelder

The Drachenfels trachyte is one of the stones used in Romanesque architecture in the Netherlands , together with Römer tuff. In contrast to Römer tuff, its use continues into the 16th century, for example in the cathedral of Utrecht . Other examples include the Proosdij in Deventer , the oldest surviving stone house in the Netherlands , as well as the Valkhof chapel ( Nijmegen , 1030-1050), and the church of Rijnsburg . The most prominent example of elaborate use outside the Netherlands is the cathedral of Cologne .

The Drachenfels trachyte is a plutonic rock, derived from the Siebengebirge, a volcanic area north of the Eifel in Germany . The rock, which geochemically represents a latite rather than trachyte, can be easily recognized from the large, few cm-sized sanidine crystals floating in the grey-beige to greenish ground mass. The Drachenfels trachyte may show different forms of weathering, including exfoliation, weathering of the sanidine phenocrysts, finally disappearing leaving rectangular voids, weathering of the matrix, i.e. sanidine phenocrysts sticking out of the ground mass, and rarely an orange-brownish patina (e.g. on the Cathedral of Cologne).

 
Source: Slinger et al. 1980, Von Plehwe-Leisen et al. 2004, Nijland et al. 2007

   
Proosdij, Deventer (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006) Eusebius Church, Arnhem (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2005)
   
Dom Church, Köln (Photo: Wido Quist, 2006)  

Weidenhahn trachyte

Igneous rock
Plutonic rock

Dutch name: Weidenhahn trachiet
Alternative names: -

Weidenhahn trachyte, is a fine grain rock with phenocrysts of feldspar and the brown mica biotite in a beige to light grey ground mass. The Weidenhahn trachyte originates form the geological era Oligocene and is quarried in the Westerwald, Germany . Rather striking for a crystal stone is its high porosity (ca. 10 vol.%). It is a widely used restoration stone (for example in St. John’s Cathedral, ’s-Hertogenbosch).



Source: Nijland et al, 2007

   
St. John’s Cathedral, ‘s-Hertogenbosch (Photo: Wido Quist, 2005) Eusebius Church, Arnhem (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2007)
   
St. John’s Cathedral, ‘s-Hertogenbosch (Photo:Timo Nijland, 2002)  

Mendiger basalt

Igneous rock
Eruptive rock

Dutch name: Basalt, bazalt
Varieties: Mayener, Niedermendiger

Mendiger basalt is an eruptive igneous rock, consisting of phenocrysts of Fe-Mg minerals (such as pyroxene, olivine, amphibole) and plagioclase, in a fine grained matrix (ground mass). It is a hard, dense rock. Fresh from the quarry the colour is dark grey. Exposed to outdoor conditions the stone becomes intense black. Macroporosity may be variable, depending on original gas content of the magma, and, hence, provenance of the rock. In the Netherlands, it is traditionally used for the cladding of dykes. Basalt from Niedermendig and Mayen, in the German Eifel region, was traditionally imported in the Netherlands, where it was scarcely used as a building stone. Basalt mill stones produced in the Mayen / Niedermendig
area have been imported in a range of sizes and large amounts. The rock has only rarely been used in pre- 19th century Dutch architecture. A few blocks occur, for example in the columns of the nave of the Buurkerk in Utrecht.

From the 1830s onwards, the stone has been used at the Dom church in Köln. In the early 1900s the stone was used in modern buildings (e.g., the Holy Heart of Jesus church and the Elisabeth Gruytershome both by the architect A. Boosten, Maastricht). In the period 1960-1980 Mendiger basalt was used as a replacement stone for (Bentheim) sandstone in several churches and towers (e.g., St. Lievensmonstertower, Zierikzee, Tower of Our Lady, Amersfoort and St. John’s cathedral in ‘s-Hertogenbosch).

Source: Nijland et al, 2007

   
St. Lievensmonstertower, Zierikzee (Photo: Wido Quist, 2007) St. John’s Cathedral, s-Hertogenbosch (Photo: Widio Quist, 2007)
   
Old Church, Delft (Photo: Wido Quist, 2006)  

Londorfer basalt

Igneous rock
Eruptive rock

Dutch name: Basalt, bazalt
Varieties:-

Londorfer basalt is a fine porous material with with large holes due to the original gas content of the magma. Those “airbubbles” have no bad influence on the durability of the stone. The colour of the stone is evenly grey.

The quarry was reopened in 1952 to deliver large quantities of stone for repair and restoration of the Dom church in Köln. Due to its high price the stone is only used a few times in the Netherlands as a replacement stone for Bentheim sandstone in the late 1950s (i.e., St. Lievensmonstertower, Zierikzee and the townhall in Vianen). It was also used for restoration purposes at the Nicolai church in Utrecht (1973- 1974).

   
Dom Church, Köln (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006) St. Lievensmonstertower, Zierikzee (Photo: Wido Quist, 2007)
   
   

Volvic basalt

Igneous rock
Eruptive rock

The Volvic basalt comes from a somewhat isolated volcanic occurrence east of the Chaîne des Puys in the Limagne, French Massif Central. It is a medium grey basalt, often with a purplish huge. It has a trachy- andesitic composition, without macroscopically visible phenocrysts. The rock has a high compressive strength and shows good resistance against weathering and atmospheric pollution.

The Volvic basalt has been used locally since the 7th century, Exploitation, however, remained marginalt until the 13th century, when the rock became in use for the construction of several major monuments in the region, including the Gothic cathedral of Our Lady of Assumption in Clermont-Ferrand, dating back to 1248. Additions to the cathedral by Viollet-le-Duc during the restoration in the 19th century were again made in Volvic. The town of Riom also takes pride in many buildings constructed in Volvic. Much later, around when train transport had become available,
Art Nouveau (Jugendstil) architect Hector Guimard used the Volvic for his famous entrée portals and stations of the Paris metro (e.g. at Porte Dauphine). He applied the lava it as lave emaillée, for which the stone, due to its nature very resistent to high temperatures, was very suitable. For the same reason, the stone has been used in the chemical industry.

In the Netherlands, Volvic has been introduced as a replacement stone in the 19th century. In 1884, it was used for the restoration of the top façade of the Waag building in Alkmaar. It has more widely been used in the 1980’s, for example on St. Servaas basilica in Maastricht (1984), the Main of St. Walburgis church, Zutphen (pinacles, 1987), St. Martin’s church, Zaltbommel, and at the Dom church in Utrecht; in the latter case, it is used to replace sandstone.

   
Cathederal of Clermont Ferrand (Photo: Jean Mergoil) Entrance, St. Martin’s Church Zaltbommel (Photo: Wido Quist,
2007)
   
Dom Church, Utrecht (Photo: Rob van Hees)  

Römer tuff

Igneous rock
Eruptive rock

Use of tuff as a building stone in the Netherlands dates back to Roman times. The same kind of tuff as used by the Romans, widely known as Römer tuff, was used again in the period of the Romanesque architecture, from the 10th until the early 13th century. The towns of Deventer and Utrecht were major trading centres in tuff. In the eastern (Twenthe) and southeastern parts of the country (Limburg ), Römer tuff has been only scarcely used. It has however, widely been employed in other parts of the country, e.g. in the Romanesque churches of the northern province of Groningen and in the western provinces of Holland as well as in the early 11th century churches built in Utrecht by bishop Bernold (Bernulphus). Minor amounts of the latter tuff still survive in these churches. From the 13th century onwards, when a toll was levied on the main transport route, i.e. the river Rhine , the use of Römer tuff strongly decreased in favour of locally produced fired clay bricks and other kinds of natural stone that could  be imported over toll-free rivers.

Macroscopically, the colour of the matrix varies from brown to grey, often with a rose huge. Generally, original Römer tuff contains only a small amount of rock fragments other than pumice. The stone currently available for restoration purposes contains a larger amount of basaltic inclusions, which makes it more difficult to beworked and carved. This stone is apparently derived from the bottom parts of the ash flows /glow avalanches.

Source: Nijland et al, 2003; Nijland & Van Hees 2006

   
Barbarossa ruin, Nijmegen (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2008) St. John’s Cathedral ‘s-Hertogenbosch (Photo: Rob van Hees,
2006)
   
Classic Römer tuff Römer tuff used in recent restorations

Weiberner tuff

Igneous rock
Eruptive rock

Dutch name: Tufsteen
Varieties: Hohenleie
Alternative names: Duifsteen

In the 15th and 16th centuries, tuff is used again, this time the fine grained Weiberner and Hohenleie tuffs. They are used for finely carved sculptures, for example in St. John’s cathedral, ‘s-Hertogenbosch and St. Peter’s church, Leyden, as well as for wall claddings. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, this tuff is used again, both for restoration purposes and newly erected buildings.

Macroscopically, Weiberner tuff is a rather homogenous, fine grained tuff. The tuff used in the Netherlands named Hohenleie, Hohen Ley or Hochlei, is represent a variety of the Weiberner, with only a small amount of lapilli. Weiberner tuff has a more homogenous appearance than both Ettringer and Römer tuffs. The Weiberner tuff generally lacks the yellow pumice inclusions abundant in Ettringer tuff. Rock fragments are quite small and often greenish, though levels with abundant, larger (10 - 15 mm) fragments occur in the (present) quarries. These too have been applied in the past, as it is the case of fine grained varieties with only a few, isolated, 3 - 6 cm sized pumice fragments.

Source: Nijland et al, 2003; Nijland & Van Hees 2006

   
Sallandse Bank, Deventer (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2004) Corbelstone (Hohenleie), Pieterskerk, Leiden (Photo: Timo Nijland,
2005)
   
Weiberner tuf  

Ettringer tuff

Igneous rock
Eruptive rock

Dutch name: Tufsteen
Varieties: Hasentoppler
Alternative names: Duifsteen

The Ettringer / Hasenstoppler tuff is not used until the late 19th entury, when it is used for restoration purposes and, especially in the 1920’s-1930’s and 1950’s, for newly erected churches, residential dwellings, etc..

Macroscopically, the matrix has a light brown colour with abundant, regularly distributed rock and pumice fragments; single fragments being sized up to a few centimetres. The tuff known as Hasenstoppler is considered to be a variety of Ettringer tuff, only distinguished by specific rock fragments.

Source: Nijland et al, 2003; Nijland & Van Hees 2006

   
Kas Bank, Amsterdam (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2005) Eusebius Church, Arnhem (Photo: Wido Quist, 2007)
   
Ettringer tuf  

Slate

Metamorphic rock

Dutch name: Leisteen
Alternative names: -

Slate is a fine grained, homogeneous, metamorphic rock derived from clayey sediments through the combination of low grade metamorphism and deformation. The result is a foliated rock in which a typical slate cleavage has developed. This foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. Slate is mainly composed mica’s (illite/muscovite, biotite, chlorite), quartz and feldspars together with graphite and sulfides. The rocks easily splits along the foliation, due to the parallel orientation of the mica’s..

In the Netherlands , slate is mostly used for roofing and, more rarely, also for flooring or wall cladding. In historic buildings, slate from Germany and from Belgium has been used . Nowadays slate for restoration works is imported from several countries, like Spain , Great Britain ( Wales ) and Canada.

   
Kirchstrasse, Kastelaun (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2007) Ardoiserie de Morepire (Photo: Wido Quist, 2006)
St. John’s Cathedral, ‘s-Hertogenbosch (Photo: Wido Quist 2006)
   
Ardoiserie de Morepire (Photo: Wido Quist, 2006)  

Carrara marble

Metamorphic rock

Dutch name: Carrara marmer
Alternative names: -

Carrara marble can be found in the largest marble zone of the world, the Apuane Alps, in Tuscany ( Italy ). It represents limestone, metamorphosed to marble during the Tertiary. The lens is more than 65 km², reaching, in some places, a thickness of 1000 m.Carrara marble has been used since antiquity, and was quarried in several hundreds of small quarries.

White Carrara Marble was used among other things, for the pulpit of the Grote Kerk (main church) in Dordrecht (1756), the front of the Dam Palace and for other monuments, like, for instance, the burial monument of William of Orange in the New Church, Delft.



Source: Slinger et al, 1980

   
Tympanum, Paleis op de Dam, Amsterdam (Photo: Wido Quist,
2006)
Monument for William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), New Church, Delft (Photo: Rob
van Hees, 2006)

Alta quartzite

Metamorphic rock

Dutch name: Alta kwartsiet
Alternative names: -

Alta quartzite is a greenish grey, quartzitic flagstone from Norway . It is a metamorphic rock, with quartz, feldspar and muscovite as essential minerals. The stone is extracted from ten to fifteen quarries in northern Norway . In the Netherlands , the stone is traditionally used for indoor pavement, including many railway stations.


Source: Selonen & Suominen 2003

   
TNO Bouwlab, Delft (Photo: Timo Nijland, 2006) Stairs railway station, Delft (Photo: Wido Quist 2006)
   
Photo: Wido Quist 2006  

ANNEX 1 - Pore size distribution assessed with MIP

 
1. Maastricht Limestone
 
2. Kunrade Limestone
 
3. Lede sandy Limestone
 
4. Lede (Balegem variety) sandy Limestone
 
5. Gobertange sandy Limestone
 
6. Petit granit

ANNEX 2 - PFM micrographs of thin sections

 

 
Bentheim sandstone (TNO 00445, 25x, pp) Carboniferous sandstone (TN) 761, 25x, pp)
   
Obernkirchen sandstone (TNO 00450, 25x, pp) Nivelstein sandstone (TNO 00599, 25x, pp)
   
Rakowicze sandstone (TNO 00198, 25x, pp) Brusselien iron sandstone (TNO 896, 25x, pp)
   
Morley (oolitic) limestone (TNO 00364, 25x, pp) Maastricht limestone (TNO 00744, 25x, pp)
   
Coutarnoux (oolitic) limestone (TNO 00595, 25x, pp) Bog iron ore (TNO 00590, 25x, pp)
   
Portland (oolitic) limestone (TNO 00539, 25x, pp) Chinese granite G682 (TNO 00608, 25x, pp)
   
Römer tuff (TNO 00537, 25x, pp) Drachenfels trachyte (TNO 700, 25x, pp)
   
Ettringen tuff (TNO 00216, 25x, pp) Thuringer slate (TNO 00166, 25x, pp)
   
Weibern tuff (TNO 00538, 25x, pp) Carrara marble (TN) 650, 25x, pp)

ANNEX 3 - Physical properties

Physical properties of selected rock types. Data marked in yellow represent data in other units than in the table caption (see notes). Due to absence of information; not all stones inthis atlas are represented in this table
 
Notes
1 As determined on dry prisms
2 in %
3 in wt.%
4 in wt.%, under atmospheric pressure
5 in wt.%, under vacuum

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